What is Nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the name given to all of the engineering and technology studies carried out in sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers . Nanotechnology is a field in which studies are carried out in small sizes that cannot be evaluated with the measurement units used in daily life. Therefore, it has its own unit of measurement.
This unit of measurement called nanometer; It is used to describe a specific size, such as millimeters or centimeters. one nanometer; A unit of measurement equal to one billionth of a metre . Nanoparticle, on the other hand, is used to express a single substance with dimensions of 1 to 100 nanometers. These parts cannot be seen with the naked eye. At the same time, it is not possible to see it when viewed with conventional microscopes.
What are Nanotechnology Approaches?
In the era we live in, nanotechnology is accepted as an engineering branch studied at molecular scales for functional systems. It covers all the techniques used to develop high performance and much more effective technological products . The approaches adopted by this technology, which has a very wide usage area, are as follows:
- theoretical approaches
- bottom-up approaches
- Top-down approaches
- Bio-associative approaches
- functional approaches
Each approach brings with it a different working system. Studies with accepted and applied approaches in different fields contribute to the development of nanotechnology in many ways.
What Are Examples of Nanotechnology?
Today, nanotechnology, which finds its place in many areas of life, has an important effect such as facilitating human life. Lighter cars, ships and airplanes are designed with this technology. This also provides fuel savings to vehicles. Thus, it has a positive economic contribution. Thanks to nanotechnological research, nano materials, machines and chips are produced. Carbon nanotube, which is among the nano materials and attracts great attention; It is rod-shaped, high-density and quite rigid. The rods can be placed anywhere as they are hollow. NASA, which is followed with interest around the world with its work, has recently announced that the carbon nanotube design will also be used for space exploration.
Nano chips enable the computers and smartphones we currently use to work much more effectively. This technology, which enables hardware parts to be made in smaller sizes, also allows the device dimensions to be designed as desired. Nanotechnology is also a method used for machine design. Machines such as motors, switches, pumps and impellers are made much more efficient thanks to this technology.
What Are the Usage Areas of Nanotechnology?
The usage areas of nanotechnology are quite wide. These studies at the molecular level are used in every field that is beneficial for humanity. Nanotechnological developments are used extensively in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, computers, mathematics, pharmacy and medicine . Materials science is one of the fields where this technology is used intensively. Smaller and faster computer projects are realized thanks to nanotechnology. With the use of this technology in the field of medicine, many excellent studies that change human life, such as repairing damaged nerve cells at nanoscales, emerge.
Materials and Manufacturing
Material making and manufacturing are at the top of the fields where nanotechnology is used. Advances in this field are used to manufacture more functional and smaller-sized products . These products also enable the production of many advanced technological devices in the theoretical stage.
Nanotechnology creates significant differences in the areas where it is used. Textile is one of these fields. It is possible to make changes in the structure of fabrics with nanotechnology. In this way, materials with different properties such as waterproof or fireproof can be made. Nanotechnology greatly diversifies fabric production and enables the production of different and new products in many fields.
Nano Electric and Computer Technologies
Computer and its accompanying technologies occupy a large place in nanotechnology application areas. Nanotechnology is used in the construction of quantum computers, which have much higher information processing power than the devices we currently use. Quantum computers , whose working principle is very different from the devices we use daily, allow extremely complex problems to be solved. Nano-electricity, on the other hand, enables technological breakthroughs in areas such as sensors, display systems and signal transmission developed for vehicles.
Medicine and Health
Change and transformation in the fields of medicine and health can be shown among the most striking examples of nanotechnology . This technology, which allows to intervene in living systems at molecular scales, also plays an active role in making devices that interact with microorganisms. With nanotechnological devices, parts of the body that are damaged and cannot be reached under normal conditions can be repaired. Diagnosis and treatment processes can be applied in a much healthier way.
Nanotechnology is also used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry. With the drugs developed with this technology, it becomes possible to eliminate diseases that were previously incurable. Nanotechnology is also used to increase the effectiveness of existing drugs.
Studies in the field of space and aeronautics generate very high economic bills. The materials used in this area are extremely heavy. With the introduction of nanotechnology, it becomes possible to produce all these materials much lighter. Of course, the dimensions of the materials also decrease. Thus , it is possible to reduce the cost and researches in this field can be done more easily. The biggest role in accelerating the breakthroughs of companies and institutions working in the space-aviation field such as NASA and Space X belongs to this technology.
Environment and Energy
Nanotechnological developments make it possible to build engines that offer higher efficiency with less fuel . This means the creation of more environmentally friendly systems. Especially in the fields of production and transportation, both highly efficient and environmentally friendly applications are one of the benefits of nanotechnology. With the widespread use of these applications, it is possible to achieve a cleaner environment.
The defense sector is one of the areas where countries allocate the most budgets around the world. Nanotechnology, which has high potential for military applications, allows the creation of innovations such as weapon systems and improved camouflages. The research-development process of most of the studies in this field continues. In the future, devices and systems created with this method will take a much more place in the defenses of countries.
Biotechnology, Agriculture and Food
The benefits of nanotechnology in agriculture and food are quite remarkable. This technology has an important place in the regulation of animal and plant genes . Through nanotechnology, genetically modified organisms have become more and more common in daily life. Since the human population is increasing day by day, it is expected that the foods developed with this technology will have a much larger place in our lives in the future.